Tuesday, September 30, 2008

Ray Hollis Ashtray [my attempt for the 2nd time]

The Ray Hollis ashtray was designed by Philippe Starck in 1986. This simple artifact is ten centimeters tall, seven and a half centimeters wide and eleven and a half centimeters long. The material that the ashtray is made out of is aluminum. This ashtray was a gift of Clotilde Bacri. To describe this piece is quite difficult due to the simplicity. Basically, it is a slightly flaring rectangular box with a slab-like, pivoting flip-top lid. The lid’s thin edge projects beyond one side of the box. Even though the design is so simple, describing it is a challenge. The shape of the Ray Hollis ashtray is very different from any other typical ashtray—the typical ashtray’s shape is round and there’s a distinct place to put your cigarette. The materials are also different. A typical ashtray is made out of plastic or glass, rather than polished aluminum. The aluminum ashtray’s sense of symmetry and shape expresses a sophisticated and modern look. Lids on an ashtray are unusual; however, there is one on this particular ashtray making it unique. Who knew that ashtrays could be so appealing?

The umbrella holder has many contrasts towards the ashtray. Even though they both hold things, there are many differences—mainly being the shape and material. The shape of the umbrella holder is round and cylinder like. Materials used in the holder are porcelain, which contrasts the ashtray.

Compared to the Le Corbusier Petit Loveseat, many similarities arise. Both are modern with simple shapes, in this case, rectangular. These simple shapes really help make the pieces different from the other artifacts.

Friday, September 26, 2008

Chocolate Pot

This is a Chocolate Pot designed by Lucien Bonvallet in 1900. The Silver pot with Ivory Handle was used to make a Chocolate drink... Hot Chocolate. Chocolate was discovered in Mexico by the Spanish and brough back to Spain in 1528. Arriving on the scene in Europe 100 years before Coffee or tea it quickly gained popularity. Chocolate pots were designed from the simple to the ornate. Silver and pewter were embossed and decorated. The lid was hinged with decrative top and a hole for the stirrer to be inserted without loosing the heat from the drink.
The Chocolate Pot was introduced into the movies throughtout the early 1900's and was even put into opera.
Notes from New York Times September 26 2008

Wednesday, September 24, 2008

Jayson Parker - Library Table

My Artifact

The Herter brothers’ rosewood and mother of pearl library table was designed in 1882 for William Henry Vanderbilt, for whom they also designed and decorated a mansion on 5th avenue in Manhattan. The table itself was encompassed within the mansion and centrally located as a hierarchical landmark within the library. However, the presence of this table is not limited to its location. The Metropolitan Museum of Art explains that the sole purpose of the table was not to be functional, (though it had the ability to), but rather was to be the embodiment of power and prestige as a piece of sculpture to Vanderbilt himself (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1). In class, we have discussed the fact that, throughout history, people have been alluding to and pulling design elements from the past and incorporating them into design today. The library tables’ lion-paw shaped feet, overall shape, and stylized palmettes are all elements reminiscent of the Roman Empire. Furthermore, the wreaths enclosing a star in each corner of the tabletop parallel designs from the Napoleanic era. It can be clearly seen that this table served as a powerful symbol for Mr. Vanderbilt during his time, as well as a symbol that draws heavily on the past.

Similar Artifact
A similar artifact, a center table, was also designed by the Herter Brothers in the late 1800’s. As with the library table, the center table is very ornate with carved, ebonized, inlaid and gilded maple as well as gilded bronze fittings. Some may say that this table could have easily had just as prominent a place as the library table had, since the Herter brothers often designed for prominent clients within the U.S. including the White House.

Contrasting Artifact
Contrary to the library table is the lava lamp. Though not primarily used for illumination the lava lamp was a symbol of modernity fundamentally used for decoration. It was also associated with the drug culture of the 1960’s because of its aesthetic similarities to hallucinations commonly associated with certain drugs. In light of this information one can see that the lava lamp served an entirely different purpose than that of the library table. The table symbolized power and prestige for one man, while the ubiquity of the lava lamp represents a culture that is self-destructing.

Source: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. “American Decorative Arts.” 2008. Sept. 21, 2008.

Tuesday, September 23, 2008

Sewing Machine Patent Model, Isaac Singer

The first practical sewing machine was designed by Elias Howe in 1846 and provided a new way to make clothes. Previously, clothes had been made by hand using a needle and thread. This invention allowed for mass production of clothing.
In 1851 Isaac Singer introduced a commercial sewing machine and three years later a domestic model. Singer developed this design whilst working in a machine shop in Boston, Massachusetts, where he repaired a Lerow sewing machine. Together with Edward Clark he founded the I.M.Singer Company, marketed it and became one of the wealthiest Americans of the century. One difference between Singers model and earlier ones was its continuous-feed feature. This method of cloth feeding regulated the tension on the needle thread, and lubricated the needle so leather could be sewn. Previous machines had an overhanging arm, which held a needle directly and vibrated with it. According to Holmes, Singers improved sewing machine included such assets as a table supporting the cloth horizontally (instead of a feed bar); "a vertical presser foot to hold the cloth down against the upward stroke of the needle, and an arm to hold the presser foot and the vertical needle-holding bar in position over the table. A real breakthrough was his invention of a foot treadle instead of a hand crank." (http://www.moah.org/exhibits/virtual/sewing.html)
Three years after the introduction of his sewing machine, Elias Howe sued Singer, however his machines continued to be manufactured and continued to be improved. Singers Company had become the world's largest manufacturer of sewing machines by 1860.
Opdkye was one of the first American merchants to manufacture a small-scale line of ready-made clothing. After the sewing machine was invented ready-made clothing took off. Ready-mades are considered to be commercially made, mass-produced objects created for purchase and immediate use. Singers sewing machine was not only used for clothes, but also adopted by shoe makers, as it was strong enough to sew leather.
A comparison to the sewing machine is the Macintosh 512K because it too was a functional device. Isaac Singers sewing machine was not the first to be invented but a developed and improved version of previous ones which allowed for a greater production of clothing etc. The Macintosh 512K was the second apple computer design who's improvements allowed for increasing communication within societies.
The Rookwood vase contrasts to the sewing machine as it does not serve a particularly important or useful function other then holding flowers. The individuality and design of the hand crafted vase contrasts to the ability of the sewing machine to produce mass production of clothes.

Monday, September 22, 2008

center table-herter brothers

The Herter Brothers (Gustave /Christian Herter) became leading interior designers and furniture makers in later 19th century. The Center Table (1878-1888) a decorative piece showing mixed materials and hand carvings. The basic form of the table is post and lentil with incise ornament and gilding. The legs taper down and flair out at the bottom giving the legs feet. All of the legs are connected either by supports from front to back or by the stretcher helping stable the table. Detailed pieces are carved and added to the side of the table between the legs. The voids help lighten the table keeping it from looking chunky. Medallions are added below the top encouraging the amount of detailed carvings. The top is an elaborate inlay of wood with motifs of classical origin. The dimensions of the table are 30.75” x 56” x 35”

convex mirror

This mirror is a convex one that was once very popular during the 19th century in England; although, no convex mirror was produced of this size until 1795. This particular mirror was made in the year 1800 in England. The designer is unknown. This artifact represents the Regency style. This era can be noted by elegant furniture, boldness and a white stucco façade with columns. This mirror has carved pediments with an eagle at the top. Hung mirrors are used to reflect objects in the room, however convex mirrors have the ability to reflect the whole interior. Usually one would hang such artifact at the end of the room in a place where it could do so. This object is an additive object to a building and has the ability to repeat elements within the space. According to Wikipedia, these mirrors can be very helpful because the image is always virtual, diminished and upright. Images reflected in these artifacts are always look smaller than they really are so that they can show more than a plane mirror. Mirrors capture light and reflects them into the space making good use of natural and artificial light. Today you can find convex mirrors in cars, security features, computer monitors, camera phones, Christmas ornaments, and thumb tacks.

Compare: One could compare this convex mirror to Jayson Parkers artifact, the library table. This table is embellished with carvings, and plated with bronze. This table is not functional, however it is seen as a symbol of power.

Contrast: In comparison to Sara Zales post on the Ray Hollis ashtray, this artifact is much different than the convext mirror. Designed also 100 years later and for a much different purpose the ashtray was made as a gift and is characterized but is strait edges and lines.

Columbine, Figure, 1760

Columbine, Figure, 1760 by Franz Anton Bustelli. He modeled sixteen characters from the Italian commedia dell'arte, each figure is meant to have a sense of movement. Porcelain Figure of Harlequin is on display in the Metropolitan Museum of Art along with some of the other fingers from the set. Commedia dell'arte is a theatrical form characterized by improvised scripts and characters that gained popularity in northern Italy and throughout Europe in the fifteenth century. The distinctive costumes and stylized postures held particular appeal for modelers of small sculpture such as Franz Anton Bustelli.

Le Corbusier's Petite Love Seat

Le Corbusier said that a house is a machine for living; this means that the furniture inside of that house would be its working parts. Le Corbusier’s Petite Loveseat is a stylish and luxurious, yet modern and practical. It is very difficult to streamline such a product so that it inherits all of these qualities, but Le Corbusier was successful in this with his LC2 collection, which includes the petite loveseat featured in the image above. The collection is luxurious in that fine leather and stainless steal were used as the materials and the scale of the arms and cushions in the collection are highly padded and thick. The thickness of the cushions provides comfort and a luxurious design aesthetic. The petite loveseat has a very low back cushion and the arms are the same height as the back. This part of the design relates to Le Corbusier’s minimalist approach. The love seat also seems to have a good amount of weight and sturdiness to it, which contributes to the fact that working parts of a home (furniture) must be sturdy and usable. The stainless steal frame is sincerely minimal in that the placement of the bars is for structure only. Le Corbusier’s collection is almost like an exoskeleton in that it’s ‘bones’ are on the outside of the piece and it’s outer cushions become the inner workings. Le Corbusier’s Petite Love Seat and his LC2 collection is a far stretch from the traditional furniture of the time and can be viewed as a home’s most successful working parts.

Murphy's bed

eMurphy's bed is an ingenious design when you are designing for small spaces. It was patented in 1916 by William Murphy. It was designed for small spaces. This design was becoming more necessary since more people were moving to cities and living in small apartments. It is a very easy design to use. The thick bars indicate where to pull and what to fold down. It also helps with multi-use for a space. You could have the space function as a living room during the day and then fold out the bed and have it be a bedroom at night. The matress is hidden away in a closet or cabinet. You open the doors and pull the matress down. A support bar flips down at the bottom to provide support. This reveals the subtractive part of the design. There is a hole where the bed used to be. The matress is fastened at each corner by a bolt. There is no room for a box spring matress, so the matress lies on a wire mesh. It is made out of steel bars and then the material for the matress, and wood for the cabinet it sits in. This design I would consider to be more vernacular than high design. It was designed more for function. Over the years Murphy's bed has evolved to include mirrors, lights, and pictures. The cabinets on the side can be used for storage and are usually symmetrical. Murphy's bed is a very practical design and over the years it has been adopted into our culture. It's Multi- function design makes it stilll relevant today and it continues to change as out need for it stays the same.

Contrast: Model for east building Mobile
IN contrast to Murphy's bed this seems to be solely for decoration. It has a flow and a beauty ot it that Murphy's bed does not. It also seems organic. They are made out of different materials and are diaplyed in different ways. The mobile hangs down from the cielng whereas Murphy's bed is attached to the wall. They are also found in different places. The mobile woulld be found in a muesem. Murphy's bed would most likely be found in a samll apartment. There is more of a use for the bed that the mobile, which makes it more functionable.

Comparison: Waterbed
Both of these beds serve the same purpose; something to sleep on. But further than that I feel that they were both designed out of function and not beauty. They take on the same shape and are amde out of similar materials. They have both been adopted by the culture and can be found in every day homes.

The "Patriot" radio, 1939

Norman Bel Geddes (American, 1893–1958)

The years throughout the Great Depression were overwhelming and very painful for all that had to suffer through them. Therefore, designers of this time period focused mainly on things that were optimistic, to take people’s minds of what was happening around them.
Norman Bel Geddes was one of America’s most prolific and influential industrial designers of the 1930’s and early ‘40s. Geddes wanted to promote both American technology and culture, thereby helping to bolster national pride during the difficult years of the Great Depression. He designed the “Patriot” radio of 1939 that is encased with a patriotic stars-and-stripes motif that is meant to be an optimistic and useful emblem of American technology, industry, and identity.
The “Patriot” radio is a very simplistic design. It’s a rectangular form with geometrical features for the station and volume controls. Either side of the radio is not identical, but there is visual symmetry and balance when you look at it. The patriotic lines make up one side of the radio for the speaker, and the circular dials and controls make up the other side, making visual weight balance between either side.
Geddes’s design can be compared to many geometrical designs, but I thought a good comparison would be Le Corbusier’s Petit Loveseat LC2. Other than this structure being a couch and not a radio, there are many similarities between the two. Both of these forms are very geometrical. The main form of the love seat is a rectangle with about the same proportions as the radio. The stainless steel frame that holds up the couch is also very geometrical. The frame can be compared to the geometrical controls on the radio. Other than geometry, both of these designs are very simple. There is no extra décor; it is simply for function, not aesthetics.
In contrast to Gedde’s geometrical, simplistic design of the “Patriot” radio, John H. Belter’s Sofa from 1850-1860 is the complete opposite. Belter is known for his high-style furnishings and luxury market in the 19th century. Belter’s sofa is made from richly carved rosewood and naturalistic blooms. This form has been intricately carved and has become this beautiful piece of furniture; it is anything but simplistic. The radio is similar to Corbusier’s loveseat in that they both have smooth textures. Belter’s sofa definitely has texture to it. The carved wood adds a rough texture to the soft velvet cushions on the seat.
In all of these artifacts you can see similarities and differences, but some are stronger and easier to see than others. When thinking about it, each of these designs has been inspired by one another in some way.


Lily Glover- fire screen

The fire screen was designed by William Arthur Smith Benson in 1891 in England. He was considered a master of metalwork, the fire screen being made of a combination of bronze and copper creating leaf like parts that fanned to cover the fireplace. Unlike many other designers during the arts and crafts movement, Benson wanted his designs to be used for mass production and really embraced the industrial movement.
This approach to design is a stark contrast to the John H. Belter sofa which is a very intricately crafted piece of furniture. He creates overly embellished woodwork, that is a Rococo Revival and a very high style look. This sofa is in no way appropriate for mass production. Belter's approach to design is one of a kind pieces. He is especially known for his work with carving rosewood, which is a very organic material, as opposed to the bronze and copper pieces that Benson is known for. Benson's work is much more streamlined and focused on form, rather than the embellishments of Belter's woodworking.
However WAS Benson worked similarly to Isaac Merritt Singer who created the Singer sewing machine. Singer was quick to embrace the industrial world as well by creating a sewing machine for commercial use. His design was much more practical than those that had already been invented. He made several improvements such as switching from a curved needle to a straight one. Once he started his own company he began to target sewing machines for people’s homes. Benson's fire screen is much like this in that he was able to bring a part of industry into peoples homes, just as Isaac Singer did with his home sewing machine.

The Mechanical Game Table--Josie McKinney

The Mechanical Game Table

This table consists of a beautiful assortment of materials, some of which include maple, mahogany, brass, and iron and steel fittings. At first glance it is merely a table, yet when one takes a second, closer look, they will see that the table transforms into a game table. The top of the table has hinges on one side to allow it to swing open. There are attachable legs that can be placed to hold the now "game board" up. Under two more mock table tops (which allow for card and chess games,) is a backgammon box that is set into the table and rigged on springs to allow it to pop up. The Mechanical Game Table made for great entertainment and was a good space saver when not in use. (http://www.metmuseum.com/)

Manxman Piano

The Manxman piano and Mechanical Game Table are alike in a very obvious way. They both conceal entertaining mechanisms within their confines. When all of its doors are closed, this piano resembles a cabinet or hutch that is up on stilts. One would not know it is a piano, just like one would not know the Mechanical Game Table houses a backgammon box and chess board.

Conference table (1975)
The Mechanical game table is multifunctional--multifaceted. The function of the conference table is pretty clear. It has one function; People are meant to sit around it and eat, talk, read, and any other thing people regularly do at tables. It does not open or there are no suprises like there are in the other artifact.

Russian Day-Bed

The Russian Day-Bed was created in the first half of the 19th Century. It was created during the time of the arts and crafts movement. The headboard is tall and slightly curved around the mattress. It is completely constructed out of wood. It would be placed inside of a home, most likely in a bedroom but not necessarily because of its function as a Day Bed. The day bed has that feeling of hand crafted, with its excellent attention to detail and craft it definitely makes for a fantastic bed.

It is different to the Empress Josephine’s bed that was created in the Empire style designed by Napoleons decorators in 1810. This bed is so elaborate and rich with hangings where the Russian Day-Bed has so much more of an understated elegance to it. Also the Empress Josephine’s bed was also used for ceremonies as well as sleeping, the Russian Day-Bed was not.

The “Barcelona” daybed by Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe in Germany 1929 is a little more similar to the Russian daybed. One for the obvious reason they are both daybeds and therefore have the same function in a household. But they are constructed of different materials both seem to have that understated elegance about them that I mentioned before. Neither bed is extremely elaborate in the details that are put into it but if you look closely enough you know that they are definitely there.

Saturn-seat 3

Washstand, 1904

Charles Rennie Mackintosh, is the scottish designer of the Washstand. The stand is made of oak, ceramic tile, colored and mirrored glass, and lead. It stands at 63 1/4 x 51 1/4 x 20 3/8 in. It was designed to be part of the furnishings for the Blue Bedroom in Hous'hill, which is an eighteenth century suburb residence. The designer is known for his unique designs based on forms and materials from his traditional Scottish background. This style of furniture can be categorized as unique through its vibrant colors combining mirrored glass, ceramic tile and oak, without which it probably would have faded out with all other similar washstands. The style portrays that of the Art Nouveau period with the simple lines and curve seen in the mirrored glass. It is balanced by its symmetry from the left to the right but if you turn it on its side you might find that its triangular posts are very assymetrical. The backdrop shows a strong gesture in the peice with the way it plays with natural light and color. This is one of the many reasons why the backdrop can now be found sold as posters for about 200 dollars, which is appropriate for this designer. He used to be part of a team who produced poster designs, watercolors, and small decorative objects before he worked for an architecture firm. The washstand is an example of this architect/designer at the peak of his creativity.


"Charles Rennie Mackintosh (Washstand, 1994.120)" In timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000-.


This is a City Washstand by Urban Archaelogy. As you can see, the washstand has dramatically altered it shape into a form with less mass and material. It has very clean modern lines with no space for storage except for its counter which is made of granite. Unlike Mackintosh's washstand which has plenty of storage. The modern style also contrast because it directly becomes unified with the space because it is built to connect with the wall. The traditional washstand is an element within the space which can be moved according to the owners wish. One of the most important observations is the most apparent which is that it has a functioning sink unlike the previous one which shows no indication that it is a washstand except for the ceramic tile that proves water is allowed.



This is the Campion wool rug. It was designed by Morris and Co. Decorators Ltd. It was created in England. Surprisingly enough it is only about 48" x 34", not a very big rug, but a very ornate one. This kind of rug is known as "kidderminster" style, woven rug with one large symmetrical pattern.

The tiki lamp is like the Campion due to its intricate carvings and design. Much like this rug, I believe that lamp took a very long time to make. Both provoke alot of thought and show very much insight into their cultures such as what the Polynesians were worshipping and believed in the case of the tiki lamp and how the English valued beauty and decor.

On the other hand, the Campion and Marian Mahler's Curtain are to seperate things. While they are both forms of decor, they are bounds apart. The Victorian style of the rug does not fit well with the contemporary style of the curtain. Yes, they both have patterns but one seems to be more intricate and wel planned out while the other looks as if the pieces were just strewn across the curtain. I think these pieces show how the styles have changed and gone from organized to free form.

Sunday, September 21, 2008

Macintosh 512K (earth)

My Artifact (Macintosh 512K)
The Macintosh 512K was the second line of the Apple computers (this new addition had 4 times as much memory than the original Apple). It was introduced in 1984 with the cost of $3,300 and discontinued in 1986. The device came with softwares such as MacPaint, MacWrite, MacDraw, and MacProject. Although computers were not as popular then as it is today, it still had the same implementation. People used these computers as a source of communication, recieving information, and productivity.

Similar Artifact
The Patriot radio created in 1939, was also another source of communication and recieving information. Although the radio was invented way before the computer, the two devices almost had the same purpose. Both of these artifacts are still in use today in our everyday lives. Radios and computers have become such a significant part of our lives, it is almost impossible to live without it nowadays.

Contrasting Artifact
Le Corbusier Petit Loveseat LC2 was a reproduction of the 1929 Salon d'Automne. This modern piece is not an artifact that evolved around communication, recieving information or productivity. Although this piece of furniture can be used in someone's everyday life, it does not have the same purpose or the technology like a computer or a radio. However, the style of furniture have changed through time due to technology.

The Conference Table

The Conference Table (1975) can be attributed to the designs of Andrew W. Palmer, John H. Norton, and Michael A. Goldfinger. This group of men was known to be a part of the 1971 Union Woodworks, of Warren, Vermont. The table is made from red oak and black walnut, standing at 29 1/2 x 120 x 42 in.

The 1970s were a time of global change and revolution. Not unlike today, energy crisis and gasoline rations resulted in heightened economic awareness, while the costs of the Vietnam war placed a heavy burden the delicate US economy. Such social revolutions as integration and feminism reached their climax, and design was integrated with the scientific and postmodernism trends. The scientific community became fascinated with calculators, the Voyager, and Stephen Hawking's theory of black holes. Pop-art and postmodernist art was integrated with design, shedding light upon the works of such designers as Wright, Kahn, and Mies van der Rohe. The corporate culture grew, and hierarchy within the work environment was lessened, streamlining with the social revolution of the time. The Conference Table's design reflects many of the common themes of the 1970, namely scientific and post-modern ideas.

This table shares qualities with Frank Lloyd Wright's Barrel Chair, which plays off of a rather traditional chair design. It incorporates recognizable materials (warm wood) with the rather unexpected use of circular and linear elements of an otherwise familiar object. Likewise, the Conference Table is a traditional table design which explores the relationship of sculpted curves and lines.

image courtesy of cache.wists.com

The Conference Table has little relation to the industrial Coupe Table Lamp (1967), designed by Joe Colombo. Its chrome and lacquer contrast with the warm wood of the Conference Table, and the mixed media nature of the lamp greatly contrasts with the sleek wood design of the table.

image courtesy of www.dwr.com

Artifact: Candlestick Telephone or "Upright"

The first rotary upright desk phones - the candlestick - were introduced in about 1900 and used extensively until about 1930. Unlike our phones of today, it is comprised of two separate but connected pieces of a transmitter and a receiver. The receivers base is made out of rubber to keep the telephone in place and from falling over. The cords that come form it are made up of silk and/or cotton. The the candle Stick phone is made up of many different types of metals ( e.g. copper, iron , and aluminum). The rim of the diaphragm is also line with rubber. In comparison to the CandleStick phone is the Improved Victor 2 Humpback Phonograph which was designed in 1904 and was so named for the metal piece that holds the wooden horn up. This piece allows for larger-sized horns, and, higher volume.both of these items coming form the same time period transmit sound through a cone shaped transmitter. In contrast mantel clock was designed by Joseph Maria Olbrich circa 1899, in Vienna, Austria. It is carved of pear wood, with metallic numerals. Olbrich was a student of Otto Wagner, a famous Austrian architect. In May of 1897, Olbrich, Wagner, and others founded the Vienna Succession, an independent artist group, after resigning from the Association of Austrian Artists. The mantel clock’s distinctive features include it’s curvaceous solid form, elegant but simple numerals, and characteristic oval shaped opening.these two items though belonging in the house hold served two very different purposes.

Table Saw

The table saw’s origination is based on the invention of the circular saw, which is believed to have been invented in the 1700’s or the 1800’s as lumber mills began to appear. The Table saw has since become a staple of any wood shop due to its variable uses. The table saw uses a circular saw blade as well as a motor which spins an mandrel which results in the blade spinning at high speeds to cut through wood. The table saw is used to cut wood in straight lines or at an angle. Many table saws of the 20th century have similar features including a fence to keep wood straight as well as having many safety features. Specifically the Rockwell Model 34-400 was made of cast iron. It also featured guide holes so the operator could cut the wood at a 45, 30 etc. degree angle The table saw has over time become the main feature of a wood shop and is the most common saw type in small wood shops.

Much like the library table both appear very heavy and share a relatively flat top. The library table appears heavy simply due to its box like shape with few voids similar to the table saw which has few voids beneath the tabletop. These characteristics also give the two a very similar shape and scale.

The table saw is made of cast iron and is therefore very heavy however the fire screen by W.A.S. Benson is also made of metals (copper and brass) but is designed in such a way to appear very light and therefore appears to be almost made of something completely different and yet it does little more than its designed function similar to the table saw.

artifact: Etagere

My artifact was designed and made by Julius Dessoir between the years 1851-1866 and was made in the U.S.A. The cabinet was titled Etagere and was made out of rosewood and maple. It has a glass mirror and brass accents. The tabletops half-oval shape is supported by four elegantly, detailed scroll legs. The piece has two shelves with smoothly shaped profile edges. The piece also contains a lot of intricate design and scrollwork. On the table front there is a centralized drawer, completed with a rectangular brass-locking device.
There are similarities between my cabinet by Julius Dessoir and the sofa designed by John H. Belter. This sofa was designed in the same time period as the cabinet, between the years 1850-1860. The cabinet was constructed of rosewood, for the frame, and upholstery for the seat and seatback. This cabinet by Julius Dessoir was produced in the U.S.
Dessoir and Belter are both among the most recognized cabinetmakers producing high-style furnishings in the Rococo Revival style in the nineteenth-century. Both artifacts were intricately carved out of rosewood. Not only were the same materials used in both pieces, their styles were both similar as well. The only apparent difference between the two pieces is the size, which is not too much different, and the makers of them. However they’re both affiliated with Rococo Revival style.
The next artifact that compares to my cabinet by Dessoir is the center table by Herter Brothers. This table was made in 1877-78, only 20 years after the cabinet was produced. The table was produced in America, as was the cabinet. Both artifacts have similar styles, with a lot of detail. The artifacts both include maple, however the table consists of bronze as well.
As with my first comparison, the differences between two artifacts were the dimensions and the designers. And also, the piece was constructed two decades later than the cabinet was.

Sources include:

Lidded Punch Bowl and Ladle

The designer of the Lidded Punch Bowl and Ladle is an unknown artist from Germany. It was designed in 1900 and is manufactured by Würtemburgische Metalwarren Fabrik. This punch bowl has silver curved lines that over lap onto the green glass. This reflects its art nouveau style, which are designs that reflect plant forms. The green glass and vine like curved lines are plant like and make this piece organic. In contrast to the organic shapes of the punch bowl Philippe Starck’s ashtray is very organic and static. Although both pieces have lids the punch bowls is more decorative and points upward while the ashtray’s lid is somewhat flush with the top edges. Not only does the lid of the punch bowl point away from the two handles bring your eyes out and around the bowl. The ashtray has only vertical and horizontal lines which make it not as flowing. Lucien Bonvallet’s Chocolate Pot is especially similar; they both have handles, lids, and a stirring/serving instrument. The lids are a lot alike because of the shape and they both have a “knob” at the top for easy removal. They are both silver and have decorative etching and have another color to go a long with the polished silver.

Sheraton Tilt-top Dining Table

This table was designed in the late 19th, early 20th century. The designer is unknown, and the place of design is not know for sure, but is believed to be England or the United States. The table can be found in the Nichols House Museum. Originally the table belonged to the Nichols family and it became a permanent piece in the museum collection in 1960. The tables’ unique oval shape is created from three types of wood; mahogany, lace wood, and cherry. Having three different types of wood in one table creates more depth and dimension. The table top is supported by a turned center post, which is supported by four reeded legs. The feet are adorned with brass caps, and small brass wheels. I find it interesting that the table has wheels because you dont often see dining tables that have wheels. This also allows for more flexibility in a space because the table can easily be moved.

Liz Brown's artifact is similar to mine in that it is also a table. But, the 20th century dressing table is also a very different table. It has a mirror, and the function is totally different. Also, it does not transform.

Monumental Triple Overlay Lamp

The Monumental Triple Overlay Lamp was produced between 1965 and 1875, by the Boston and Sandwich Company, the primary, domestic glass manufacturers of the time. Highly rare in its existence, this piece is deemed by Dr. Sylvia Yount, as an “outstanding example,” of the accomplishment that is 19th century glass making. In the late 1850s, the company modified their lamps to accommodate kerosene. In doing so, they also redesigned aesthetically to instill more detail and beauty in their product.
The lamp is made of blown glass, which has been wheel-cut and overlaid. A frosted glass shade with a glass chimney tops the piece, and each glass section is connected with brass and marble. After fusing and molding multiple pieces of colored glass together, workers would cut designs, through the opaque glass, and leave the clear transparent layer visible. Softening the light , the designs would add depth and warmth to the piece. Standing at 41 5/8 inches, the Overlay Lamp is both elegant and ornate.
This lamp, though not entirely similar, can be compared to Marian Mahler’s curtain, solely for visual purposes. Clearly evident is the mutual color scheme of the two pieces. Equally significant is the concept of repetition. The two pieces are designed with a red backdrop, made interesting by recurring patterns dispersed throughout.
Other than the use of bright colors and the quality of illumination, the Overlay Lamp and the Lava Lamp have exceptionally few comparisons. Produced some tens of decades later, the Lava lamp is regarded as more of a novelty item than anything else. Where the Overlay Lamp uses opaque and transparent material to alter light quality, the lava lamp hardly functions as a light source. Also, the psychedelic nature of the lava lamp regally clashes with the sophisticated elegance of the Overlay lamp.

Tiki Lamp [neptune]

The tiki lamp in this instance, is a relatively small cylindrical object. It's form mimics that of a totem pole or of an ancient polynesian tiki god idol. Their culture was polytheistic and highly permeated with ideas about each god and their place. Tiki figurines and statues were thus adapted and made as religious icons. In polynesian mythology Tiki was the name of the first man to exist. He was the originator of proceeding generations, thus the way that the tiki face, and styling is fashioned into a lamp, is a very appropriate adaptation.
This artifact is formed into a lamp of sorts. It is constructed of hand carved tropical mango wood, and polished with an antique, dark stain. The center is hollowed out by hand to allow a small lamp to be inserted in it and provide a small amount of light that passes through the mouth and eyes. This use of the design of the exterior of the object really marries the form with the function in this instance; the shape of the face, dictates the amount or quality of light being emitted, and also the mood which the lighting sets in the space being occupied by this artifact.
The composition of the carving is arranged in a symmetrical fashion across the vertical axis and is predominantly shallow relief sculpture. This gives the entire piece as a whole a subtractive nature, one can almost picture the piece of wood before the artist cut into it; it's shape and form are retained. All the decorative flourishes and carvings follow the features of the exaggerated face, this directs the eye to the center of the composition and it's subject: the face, and ultimately the light inside.

Victor 2 Humpback Phonograph

The Improved Victor 2 Humpback Phonograph was designed in 1904 and was so named for the metal piece that holds the wooden horn up. This piece allows for larger-sized horns, and, consequently, higher volume. Thus, the Victor 2 was made 1 and a half inches longer than the Victor 1 phonograph. This short amount of length, surprisingly, improved the sound quality immensely. The shape of the horn naturally magnifies sound and, as this model was bigger than previous ones, could produce much higher volumes--a useful accessory for fancy parties with large numbers of people. However, this of course raised the price. This taken into consideration, and being made of fine oak, the Victor 2 was more for the upper class. The metal parts are all coated with nickel, adding to the aesthetic value of the piece.
The candlestick telephone employs a similar design for the listening device. Both transmit sound via a conical apparatus, though the telephone relies on vibrations of a magnet, while the Victor 2 relies on the grooves on the record. Also, both appliances were, at the time of their release, mainly purchased by upper class society.
On the other hand, the "Patriot" radio, designed 25 years later, relies on electricity while the Victor 2 has to be cranked to listen to music. The radio is obviously more technologically advanced as it was designed a quarter of a century after the Victor 2. However, this appliance was much more affordable at the time, and allowed nearly all classes of people to listen to music, radio dramas, and daily news reports, whereas the Victor 2 could only play pre-recorded records.

Wood working

When we think of a bed most of the time, we think of a bed that is well polished has smooth surfaces. Our beds that are in sitting in our bedrooms are the perfect example of what a typical bed looks like. The bed below does not look like a typical bed you would find in our bedrooms, Instead the bed have a very rugged looked. The surface of the wood looks every rough. We almost get a feeling that ye spreading your hands over the surface, we will get pricked by the wood. The two pieces of plywood that are supporting the bunk beds must have something else holding them, as a support since the mattresses and the weight of the individuals have much weight. I find it interesting that the designer of this bed used that time of wood to make a bed like that. I think that even though that bed looks sloppy in a sense, the overall design is well designed, it may not look very appealing but it is probably just was sturdy and comfortable as any other bed. One thing I do not enjoy about the bed is that it does not look comfortable, and it give me the vive that this bed belongs in a prison cell, or garage and not a room.

"Canoe" Sofa - Eileen Gray

Eileen Gray is known for her more contemporary designs for furniture until it comes to the canoe sofa.

She was born Aug 9 1878. in Enniscorthy, Ireland. Gray had studied as a painter until she came across Seizo Sugawara a Japanese furniture maker who specialized in lacquer work. From working with Sugawara, there Gray had taken a huge interest in this field of lacquer, and started to work with that material. With this technique in mind she made the Canoe Sofa, an element in the design for Suzanne Talbot’s apartment. The piece consists of lacquered wood, silver leaf and upholstery formed into the shape of a canoe that is found in many Polynesian designs. Her take on this sofa has an organic flow to its legs that could symbolize water with which a canoe needs to be successful. This is unlike her previous works’ influences, which were much more in the contemporary opinion of the time such as her Bibendum chair. This chair is much closer to the popular Bahuaus or Le Corbuisier which she was acquainted with.

In the design of the canoe sofa other techniques were introduced, away from her regular designs, which led to my conclusion that the sofa was specially designed for her client. With that in mind it shows the commitment and flexibility in her love for taking on challenges.

Compared to Joseph Maria Olbrich's Mantel Clock around the same time period, similar features take place. More curves are used in both designs and the sculpting of wood gave the natural aesthetic.

However, the canoe sofa is something removed from her personal style that I prefer. This assignment for Talbots apartment, is not to my liking but I respect Gray as a designer for taking on the challenge. Design isn’t always a personal project and exterior elements outside of the designer opinions have to be accounted for.

LiNeN pReSs ~ Ashley Blackburn

Linen Press
By: Edna M. Walker
Byrdcliffe Arts and Crafts Colony
The linen press is, I believe, what we would most likely call an armoire or wardrobe in any furniture retailer nowadays. This linen press was handcrafted by the Byrdcliffe Arts and Crafts colony, located close to Woodstock, New York. Made in 1904, its materials consisted of oak, tulip poplar, and brass. It measures in at 55 x 41 x 18 ¾ inches. However, it was the creative talents of Edna M. Walker that constructed the surface decoration of this piece. Her precision work is represented in the polychrome panels, which are made up of carefully placed sassafras leaves. When admiring this crafty linen press, it is difficult not to have thoughts of the fall season. The coloring of the leaves, the way the little glimpses of green peek through the overwhelming presence of reds, oranges, and yellows, leaves you wanting to pull a cozy sweater out of it. Not only does the sassafras leaf tie in with the idea of autumn, sassafras leaves were also used a lot in the production of perfumes and soaps. Therefore people liked not only the aroma of the sassafras leaf, but also its pleasing aesthetic qualities. All over this linen “cabinet” there is a definite presence of movement in the wood patterns and texture. Thus, even though the actual sassafras leaf is only present on the door panels, there still remains a theme of leaves blowing in the wind carried throughout the entire piece. Looking even closer at this linen press you notice that the brass door handles have a fluidity about them. Opposite to the breezy feeling conveyed in the decoration of the linen press, its actual structure and shape is very stiff and static. Excluding several arcs on the bottom piece, the doors, drawers, crown molding, and overall shape are predominately rectangular. Being that the linen press was a prominent piece of furniture throughout the Arts and Crafts movement, which emphasized craftsmanship, I would have expected more of a coherent design. Overall though, I believe it to be a gorgeous piece and would love to store my fall sweaters and linens in it! :)

Similar: I found that the Tall Chest of Drawers by Rose Standish Nichols was the most similar to my linen press. Although materials were visibly different, there are many aspects about the visual appearance that these to share. They both have a presence of drawers. Both feature an almost identical crown molding. Both are very rectangular. Beyond the physical traits, their functions and purposes are quite alike, both store clothes mainly and lines.

Different: What I found in direct contrast to Mrs. Walker’s linen press, was Hector Guimards Cabinet. Although both are considered cabinets, their overall designs are polar opposites. Where as the linen press is rectangular the cabinet is curved and rounded. Even its drawers have rounded corners. The arrangement of the cabinet is more unbound where the linen press is structured. Although the linen press’s handles have a more flowy quality opposed to that of the cabinet.

Mantel clock

This mantel clock was designed by Joseph Maria Olbrich circa 1899, in Vienna, Austria. It is carved of pearwood, with metalic numerals. Olbrich was a student of Otto Wagner, a famous Austrian architect. In May of 1897, Olbrich, Wagner, and others founded the Vienna Sucession, an independent artist group, after resigning from the Association of Austrian Artists. This particular clock was created for Dr. Frederick Spiker's apartment in Vienna. It was created as a piece of "a completely harmonized interior" of Spiker's apartment. Olbrich was known for his work towards modernizing and unifying furniture and the interior it is a part of. The mantel clock’s distinctive features include it’s curvaceous solid form, elegant but simple numerals, and characteristic oval shaped opening.
Compared to Eileen Gray’s Canoe Sofa which came a few years later (1919), the mantel clock shares a few qualities. Simplicity is a huge theme; both pieces are not very ornamented, but are decorated with a few small details that make a huge impact: small curves, clean oval shaped openings, both paired with a main solid form.
In contrast to the mantel clock, there is a different type of household device that came much later. Normal Bel Geddes’ “Patriot” radio (1939) is typical of it’s time period, with large, bold plastic shapes and colors. In 1939, instead of the essential household clock, there is the essential household radio. A relative size and layout compared to the mantel clock, but different usage. The radio also contrasts to the mantel clock with use of color and material. The mantel clock is 90 percent wood, natural, and the radio is about 100 percent plastic, which is fabricated.

Rookwood Vase

This ceramic vase, now housed in the Minneapolis Institute of Arts Museum, was created in the well known Rookwood Pottery in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1901. Rookwood Pottery was started by one woman, Maria Longworth, with one kiln and the intention of painting pottery as a hobby. The pottery became well known for its glazes and craftsmanship. By 1901 (when this piece was produced), Rookwood had won several awards including,"1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris, the 1901 Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, and the 1901 Exposition International de Ceramique et de Verrerie in St. Petersburg, Russia." The company grew and became the first to hire a chemist to develop glazes. They were also innovative in their use of an atomizer to spray on glazes and their practice of bringing in artists to paint the pieces. Their glazes were also unique because of the colors produced when a base pigment was added to the local clay. One of the most prized colors is Sea Green, the color used on this piece. The simple modern form of the vase in combination with the Asian inspired floral decoration is a common combination in Rookwood Pottery as well as in the American Arts and Crafts movement that was affecting architecture and interior decorations during this time. Another important aspect of the vase in respect to the Arts and Crafts movement is the fact that it is made by hand by an artist.

It is similar to the Linen press by Edna M. Walker in 1904. This piece of furniture was created in the Byrdcliffe Arts and Crafts Colony located in Woodstock, New York. It was made at roughly the same time as the Rookwood vase, was made in America, and is part of the Arts and Crafts movement. The Linen press is handmade with simple overall forms and some more ornate plant related surface decorations like we see on the vase. It is also true to the Arts and Crafts movement by having been made by an artisan. Both of these pieces would have been found in a residential home setting, probably in the home of someone with some wealth and who followed the tastes of the time.
It is dissimilar to the Tizio table lamp by Richard Sapper. The Tizio is machine made and mass produced, contrary to the Rookwood vase. It is also made of industrial and man made materials like ABS plastic and aluminum metal alloy rather than a natural local material. There is no surface decoration or focus on an artisans work on the light fixture. The Tizio embodies modern form, production, and ideals. The Tizio is also a piece with a utilitarian purpose as a light fixture where the Rookwood vase is a decorative object.

Laura Snoderly

sources: www.artsmia.org, www.rookwoodcompany.com, www.justartpottery.com,

No4 Thonet Bros. Chair

THONET bentwood chairs are considered to be the most desirable of all the early bentwood chairs because the bentwood process was invented Michel Thonet in 1836. By 1870 his company, the Thonet Brothers, was the largest furniture maker in the world, making a large variety of furniture made of bentwood. Around 1870 several other companies went into production making bentwood, including Mundus and Kohn. Most of the bentwood seen in the 19th century was made in France, Poland and Austria (Thonet had factories in all locations) and these pieces were shipped all over the world. Thonet and its competitors Mundus and Kohn eventually merged into one company. This company still exists to this day making bentwood products as well as plywood and tubular steel furnishings.

Bentwood chairs are those distinctive chairs that have rounded pieces of wood, bent into curlicues, serving as arms, legs and stretchers. The wood was soaked, steamed, molded and bent into various shapes. Bentwood pieces were usually made from a variety of different woods. Bentwood is most often used in cafe or bistro chairs and stools. Most early bentwood pieces were marked with the country of origin and/or the maker. They were marked with stencils and/or paper labels usually marked in the inside of the rim under the chair's seat.

No. 4c. 1860

Manufacturer: Thonet Brothers

H: 97.0 x W: 6.0 x D: 80.0 cm (38 3/16 x 22 1/16 x 31 1/2 in. )

Bent beech wood, caningMuseum purchase through gift of American Institute of Interior DesignersAustria Frame of curving linear bent beachwood elements; the arms flow into two long parallel runners; caned, oval back joined to elongated oval bent wood element, in turn joined to caned seat supported on the runners by four intertwined circular bentwood form; two curving bentwood supports join lower back to runners.

Manxman Piano by MH Baillie Scott

MH Baillie Scott pioneered the 'Manxman' piano in London, England during the year of 1896.  Six to seven years later, around 1902-03, the masterpiece was ready for use.  This hand crafted piano was caringly constructed from ebonized mahogany, carved wood, pewter, mother of pearl, marquetry of stained woods and silver-plated handles and hinges.  Baillie Scott’s rectilinear form appears to be simple and thought provoking in construction, by simply adding barriers to enclose a box around the instrument. The dimensions are approximately, H 3’ x H 4’ x D 2’.  This was a new concept of the 1980’s due to the fact that the piano was generally large and complex, with many carved embellishments. His unique idea was to hide the keyboard, music stand and candleholders behind broad doors, which in return would downsize the mass of the instrument. Alongside the bland black box, Baillie Scott incorporated eye-catching artistry detail on both the inside and the outside of the container. The dominant paintings and materials provide contrast in color and texture by his placing of mainly browns, greens and creams against the black base. This was a style technique he portrayed in much of his artwork.  The Manxman piano was commented and admired by the critics but, unfortunately it never turned out as a commercial success.  Its estimated production in London was a mere 40 examples.  In addition, Baillie Scotts’ piano failed to sell until 1910 when, a piano dealer, J.C. Shirwin & Sons of Hanley, Staffordshire decided to purchase it at a discount price. Some critics believed it was much similar to a 17th-century Spanish chest on a stand or inspired by ‘an old strong box of the Elizabethan period’.  Coincidentally are both forms that inspired The Arts and Crafts designers of the late 19th century. (http:// collections.vam.ac.uk)

Similar Piece

The ‘Biscuit Tin’ by Boorne & Stevens Huntley and the 'Manxman' piano were designed around 1903. However this is not the only similarity they have in common, both are also containers enclosing a good.  Lastly, both are lavishly decorated in the appropriate places for the viewer to enjoy.

Different Piece

The ‘Bean Bag’ is much different from the ‘Manxman’ piano in many ways.  First, the beanbag is used to be relaxed and comfortable while sitting while the piano is designed for proper posture and concentration while using the instrument. Also the beanbag is made of soft fabric while the piano is constructed of solid wood. The beanbag contains small Styrofoam balls and the Manxman has a piano in it.  Lastly, the piano would be found in a sophisticated living area while the beanbag would be more likely found in a playroom. 


This piece is titled Sofa, it was designed by John H. Belter. He was born in Germany in 1804 and died and 1863. The sofa follows the Rococo Revival Style. It’s part of the high style furnishing market in the nineteenth century. It has a carved rosewood frame. The carvings are very organic/natural shapes. Not only is the back of the piece carved but also the legs, which are shaped in a claw leg form. The fabric appears to be of satin or silk and has naturalistic floral design printed on it. John H. Belter is known for creating his sofas with this naturalistic floral print. This type of sofa would have normally been placed in the drawing room of a families home.

One piece similar to the sofa is the Center table, by the Herter Brothers. They both have very high-carved wood. They also have the claw foot legs, although the Sofa is much more elaborate. They’re also both belonged to the high Victorian furniture market in the nineteenth century.

The sofa is very different from the “Patriot” radio, created in 1939. The “Patriot” radio is a very streamlined style that defined American design through the 1930’s and 1940”s. The “Patriot” radio is a very straightforward design, with clean lines, and a designated purpose. Where as the sofa is used not only for a purpose but is more a decoration piece than a furniture piece. The “Patriot” radio, is made from plastic a new industrial invention of the time while the sofa was still being made from wood.

Marian Mahler's Curtain:Lauren Thore

Marian Mahler’s swinging mobile curtain is a prime example of fascinating deco art from the 1950’s. David Whitehead Ltd. manufactured this contemporary screen-printed cotton fabric, in three different colors, and it is approximately 50’ wide. The deco art movement was based purely on decoration, as seen in Mahler’s curtain, and not on political or philosophical roots. The curtain also exemplifies a style of elegance and functionality that celebrates the Machine Age through the use of man-made materials. Mahler’s uses of repetition with the swinging mobiles are symmetrical which relate back to the designs of Asian and Middle Eastern influences. Mainly movements before the 1950’s, such as Neoclassical, Constructivism, Cubism and Art Nouveau, influenced designers such as Mahler, Eileen Gray and Jules Leleu. After spreading from the states to as far as Brazil and the UK deco art slowly came to an end after reaching mass production when it began to be derived as flashy and presenting a false image of luxury.

The Mahler curtain is similar to Alexander Calder’s actual mobile that was designed in 1972, mainly because of the contrasting colors and illusions to suspension. Calder’s mobile was the first ever made out of steel wire and aluminum. The mobile also has features of symmetry and repetition because of its wires and shapes.

The Mahler curtain is dissimilar to the Wurtemburgishe Metalwarren Fabrik punch bowl. The punch bowl was made in Germany in 1900 and consists of a silvered metal framework and green glass liner. Also, the punch bowl is smaller in size and has many intricate details. Although the curtain does have designs printed on it, it is not ornate but very straightforward and modern.

Atlanta Life Insurance company

Background on the Neon sign:
The neon sign of Atlanta Life Insurance is located in Birmingham, Alabama, at the intersection of 4th ave. and 17th st. The sign is made of metal and in its day lit the night sky. Atlanta life insurance was established by an African American slave named Alonzo Franklin Herndon that became the first African American millionaire. He resided in Atlanta Georgia and his home is currently a national landmark. The neon sign is located in the historic district of downtown Birmingham. The district was a thriving area established in the 1930’s to 1950’s, during which African Americans where not allowed very much freedom or privileges in white owned stores. So they began creating their own shops such as: tailoring, department stores, cafeterias, billiard parlors, fruit stands, shoe shine shops, laundry service, jewelry and record shops, and taxicab stands. The area at night was very alive as well, there where usually a lot of entertainers and dancers that lit the night life. There was no competition among race due to business they where just simply enjoying there freedom to be able to own there own stores. The Atlanta life insurance sign was apart of this thriving new district as well making a statement in the civil rights era, and is still today an excelling company.

Sources include: dresramblings.wordpress.com, wikipedia.com, flickr.com which offered information on a historical marker sign in the district.

The sign is similar to the television radio, not in style or function of coarse but in statements and historical advancements. The television radio made an impact on the American society in a huge way it was advancement in technology that allowed communication to push forward in advances, like the sign standing for civil rights in a time where change needed to take place, statements that said American can move forward.

The sign is very different from a chair. The chair functions as a comfort zone a place to relax. The sign is an advertisement tool for a company. The chair also interacts with its viewer where as the sign does not it is simply viewed from above.

The Tizio Table Lamp.

The Tizio table lamp was designed in 1972 by Richard Sapper. Sapper claimed that he designed the Tizio lamp because he could not find a work lamp that suited him: "I wanted a small head and long arms; I didn't want to have to clamp the lamp to the desk because it's awkward. And I wanted to be able to move it easily."Sapper experimented with different forms and ideas until he came up with an idea where the actual form would play a part in its function. He redesigned the standard desk lamp and used a sensitive counterweight system so that it was completely adjustable and can be moved into four different directions. It swivels smoothly and can be set in any position. This allows an intense yet small light to shine anywhere needed. The arms of the lamp conduct electricity to the bulb, avoiding any extraneous wires. A halogen bulb is used in this lamp, marking as one of the first uses of this light outside of the automobile industry. The halogen bulb provides a direct light source which can be easily adjusted to the user.
The Monumental Triple Overlay Glass Lamp is similar to the Tizio lamp because of its purpose. It was made in 1865 and used to illuminate the room. It's portable size allows it to be used at a desk as well as the Tizio lamp. However it is not adjustable to your needs like the Tizio.
The Atlanta Life Insurance Company neon sign that hangs on the corner of 4th Avenue North and 17th Street North is dislike the Tizio lamp because of the purpose it was designed for. The neon light is used to attract customers and quickly became a popular fixture in outdoor advertising. Visible even in daylight, people would stop and stare at the first neon signs for hours, dubbed "liquid fire." While neon lighting was used around 1930 in France for general illumination, it was no more energy-efficient than conventional incandescent lighting. Neon lighting came to be used primarily for eye-catching signs and advertisements.

Harlequin Figure

The Harlequin figure was modeled after sixteen characters from the Italian theatre that came to life during the sixteenth century. Harlequin, the figure shown above, was the play’s principal character. She often wore brightly colored triangular patches. Sometimes Harlequin was accompanied by Columbine. Columbine would usually play different roles in the plays. The figures were made by Franz Anton Bustelli. The figures are manufactured by Nymphenburg porcelain Manufactory in Nymphenburg, Germany. The height of the figure is eight inches tall and is made out of hard-paste porcelain. Inspiration for Bustelli’s figures came from engravings, but they all have a sense of graceful movement which suggests the artist’s firsthand impression of a theatrical performance.
Comparing the figure to the umbrella holder, both are made out of the same material, which is porcelain. Both objects also have some sort of pattern on them. Both of them share bright colors within the patterns. Another similarity is that they stand vertically rather than horizontally.
The Campion carpet contrasts the Harlequin figure in many ways. The material used in the carpet is wool, which makes it look softer rather than the porcelain used in the figure. The scale is also a difference—the carpet is much larger than the eight inch Harlequin figure. The purpose in both objects contrast each other by the carpet is more of a decorative piece and the figure is a representation of a character in a play.

RCA 730TV1 (1947)

At first when I looked at the artifact grid and saw the picture of my artifact I though to myself, "What in the world is that?" After clicking my image and doing some research I found out that my artifact is actually a television/radio that was designed in 1947. I felt to better understand this tv I needed to know how the tv itself came about. The first television sets date back to 1939, however it wasn't until the mid 1940's that televisons were affordable enough to purchase. By 1947 there were 98 commercial stations and hundreds of thousands of sets being sold. The sets back then were not like they are today. Most of them had picture screens that were 10-15 inches across, were set into heavy cabinets or pieces of wood and the picture was only displayed in black and white (until 1954). That brings me to my artifact, the RCA model 730TV1. This televison/radio combo was considered a big screen in 1947! It is actually so large that when purchased it was delivered to the home, assembled in two pieces and then the owners were taught how to use the set. The 730TV1 displays a 10" screen, but is also equipped with an AM/FM radio to the right of the screen, multi-speed turntable below and 12" speaker. The set itself is made of mahogany with beautiful walnut veneer doors that open up to display the dials and knobs for the radio and television. It's hard to imagine that our grandparents probably watched the news on one of these many years ago.

Compare: In comparison the Victor II Humpback phonograph is similar in few ways. My artifact as well as the Humpback phonograph were both produced in the 1900's. Before television people were informed through radio and listened to music through the phonograph for entertainment. As far as design both the Victor II Humpback phonograph and the RCA 730TV1 were made of wood-the RCA TV was made mostly of mahogany while the phonograph was made of quartersawed oak. The Victor II posesses a 10" turntable and the 730TV1 also has a turntable.

Contrast: Unlike the RCA 730TV1 which is a device, the Fire Screen is a piece of art and really has not other purpose but delight and being pleasing to the eye. The Fire Screen was designed in 1891 where the TV1 was designed in 1947. The materials used in the Fire Screen are copper and brass where the RCA 730TV1 used more organic materials. As far as construction the RCA 730TV1 is bulky, and bottom heavy. However, the Fire Screen is delicate, and more top heavy looking.