As humanism blosomed during the Renaissance, the focus shifted from religion to human accomplishment and human sustenance. Commisioned buildings and art became the norm in Italy and the rest of Europe effectively establishing a single patron or family as important members of society. Much like the Greek who sought "arete" and literally set thier accomphishments in stone, so did the everyday nobility of everyday Renaisssance Europe (Roth 215-246).
Studies of the classic Latin texts of Virgil, Cicero and Grecian texts of Plato and Aristotle (Roth 353-396). Vitruvious' "Ten Books On Architecture" describes Philebus-how the human body is built into the scale of itself and that circles and squares can be found in these human proportions. Brunelleschi's foundling hospital was an example of a structure measured in human proportions. Humanism was somehow resurrecting classic forms as in columns and arches in relation to human proportion. Andrea Palladio ressurected the collonaded portico for private homes (Roth 353-396).
Starting with Elizabeth I, fortified dwellings and structures began to "open up" in terms of adding large windows and walls with engaged columns (Roth 353-396). Large yards and gardens would begin to introduce the home. Gardens were also arranged in axial arrangement to influence movement. Windows opened to the outside gardens and inspired the gardens to grow. A deeper connection grew between human studies and nature as man's natural proportions became more evident as the vessel of architecture.
Castle Stokesay (England) Has larger windows than previous high fortified castles
Class structure and spatial identity became more evident through the materials and purposes of the three story pallazos. the first floor was the work space, the second was the entertaining space while the third was private. A symbolism of dirt and ground is connected this first floor work space. The second floor is made more ornate with many windows and/or columns and arches. The third floor is the most private with less windows and ornateness. The second floor seems to those who pass that it is higher than them and only the select aristocratic few may enter.
Italian Palazzo- Direct.com